In this paper, we introduce an approach that aims at increasing individuals’ privacy awareness. We perform a privacy risk assessment of the smartphone applications (apps) installed on a user’s device. We implemented an app behaviour monitoring tool that collects information about access to sensitive resources by each installed app. We then calculate a privacy risk score using a fuzzy logic based approach that considers type, number and frequency of access on resources. The combination of these two concepts provides the user with information about the privacy invasiveness level of the monitored apps. Our approach enables users to make informed privacy decisions, i.e. restrict permissions or report an app based on resource access events. We evaluate our approach by analysing the behaviour of selected apps and calculating their associated privacy score. Initial results demonstrate the applicability of our approach, which allows the comparison of apps by reporting to the user the detected events and the resulting privacy risk score.
We are currently confronting with a large number of Smartphone applications, which are developed for different purposes that on the one hand, may benefit users by easing many of their daily tasks, while on the other hand, may threaten their privacy. An important issue regarding this situation is that, smartphone users are often unaware of the privacy risks or even of the data collected by applications running on their devices. For this reason, it is an essential need to make the users aware of the potential misuses as well as the associated privacy risk consequences. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach called Beacon Alarming. Beacon alarming is introduced as a monitoring and permission manager framework to enhance the users awareness of data gathered by their installed applications. We further expand the functionality of our proposed beacon alarming system by employing fuzzy logic in order to assess the privacy risk score of each of the installed applications taking into consideration the information obtained from beacon alarming module. Accordingly, this innovative method enables users to make more logical and informed decisions.
By increasing the complexity of attacks against communication channels, existence of additional module in couple with intrusion detection systems is a challenge for researchers. Nowadays, Automated Intrusion Response Systems (AIRSs) are proposed for such purpose. The most important aim of these systems is to select responses that impose less cost on the whole system and which are able to neutralize intrusions progress effectively. Cost-sensitive AIRSs use different methods to launch efficient responses. In this regard, risk assessment as a component for assessing intrusion danger on the system is introduced in many papers. However, most available risk assessment methods produce ambiguous results. But in most of contexts fuzzy logic is known as an effective method to measure the process of risk assessment. This is mainly because, fuzzy approach reduces the level of uncertainty of risk factors. To assess risk by fuzzy methods, risk parameters which are extracted from the traffic patterns are used as inputs of fuzzy systems. The aim of this paper is to introduce an AIRS based on fuzzy risk assessment to evaluate the risk of each intrusion in real time and apply a suitable response for protecting web applications. We also introduce a method for applying responses retroactively. The results of applied method shows the effective performance of the proposed method in terms of cost-sensitivity and time to response.
In this paper, congestion-aware routing andfuzzy-based rate controller for wireless sensor networks(WSNs) is proposed. The proposed method tries to makea distinction between locally generated data and transit databy using a priority-based mechanism which provides a novelqueueing model. Furthermore, a novel congestion-awarerouting using greedy approach is proposed. The proposedcongestion-aware routing tries to find more affordable routes.Moreover, a fuzzy rate controller is utilized for rate controllingwhich uses two criteria as its inputs, including congestionscore and buffer occupancy. These two parameters arebased on total packet input rate, packet forwarding rate atMAC layer, number of packets in the queue buffer, and totalbuffer size at each node. As soon as the congestion is detected,the notification signal is sent to the offspring nodes.As a result, they are able to adjust their data transmissionrate. Simulation results clearly show that the implementationof the proposed method using a greedy approach andfuzzy logic has done significant reduction in terms of packetloss rate, end-to-end delay and average energy consumption.Reng.
Wireless sensor networks consist of a largenumber of nodes which are distributed sporadically in a geographicarea. The energy of all nodes on the network islimited. For this reason, providing a method of communicationbetween nodes and network administrator to manageenergy consumption is crucial. For this purpose, one of theproposed methods with high performance, is clustering methods.The big challenge in clustering methods is dividingnetwork into several clusters that each cluster is managedby a cluster head (CH). In this paper, a centralized geneticbasedclustering (CGC) protocol using onion approach isproposed. The CGC protocol selects the appropriate nodesasCHsaccording to three criteria that ultimately increases thenetwork life time. This paper investigates the genetic algorithm(GA) as a dynamic technique to find optimum CHs.Furthermore, an innovative fitness function according to thespecified parameters is presented. Each chromosome whichminimizes fitness function, is selected by base station (BS)and its nodes are introduced to the whole network as properCHs. After the selection of CHs and cluster formation, for upper level routing between CHs, we define a novel conceptwhich is called Onion Approach.We divide the networkinto several onion layers in order to reduce the communicationoverhead among CH nodes. Simulation results showthat the implementation of the proposed method by GA andusing onion approach, presents better efficiency comparedwith other previous methods. Conducted simulation resultsshow that the CGC protocol has done significant improvementin terms of running time of the algorithm, the numberof nodes alive, first node death, last node death, the numberof packets received by the BS, and energy consumption ofthe network.
An important issue in Peer-to-Peer networks isto encourage users to share with others as they use theresources of the network. However, some nodes may onlyconsume from users without giving anything in return. Tofix this problem, we can incorporate trust managementsystems with network infrastructures. Current trust managementsare usually made for unstructured overlays andhave several shortcomings. They are made to be very similarto e-commerce scoring websites which may not be the best design for fairness in P2P networks. Several problemsmay arise with their designs such as difficulties to providea complete history of freeloaders or lack of an autonomousremoval mechanism in case of severe attacks. In this paper,we argue that such systems can be deployed more efficientlyby using a structured paradigm. For this purpose,we propose C-Trust, a trust management system which isfocused on fairness for P2P networks. This is done bygetting help from current circular structured designs. Thismethod is able to mark freeloaders, identify their severityof abusion and punish them accordingly. We are also ableto effectively protect both Seeder-to-Leecher and Leecherto-Leecher transactions. This feature is specially importantfor fairness which other trust systems have not consideredso far.
In sending data from one point to another, such as transferringdata between various components of a computer system, due tothe existence of electromagnetic waves and other issues such asnoise and attenuation, information may be changed in the middleof the track. Therefore, it is critical for receiver to ensure theaccuracy of the information. For this reason, error control codingplays an important role in communication channels. This isspecially true for optical communication systems as one of themost important mediums used for data transmission. In this paper,we present methods of error control coding in optical fibercommunication systems. For this purpose, we introduce twocategories of error correction codes. The most important types oferror control coding techniques in optical fiber communicationsare: Reed-Solomon (RS), Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH),Product, and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC). Furthermore,an in-depth analysis for these error correction codes has beenperformed.
Wireless sensor network includes a large number of nodes which are distributedin a geographical location. The essential fact about WSN is that energy of nodes islimited. Therefore, presenting proper solutions as an optimized routing is crucial toequally use energy of all nodes. In this paper we propose a method which performsrouting in WSNs using greedy approach. It is able to choose optimum rout based onenergy level and distance. Since our method tries to equally utilize energy ofdifferent nodes, it will eventually result in lifetime increase. In addition to modifyingenergy consumption, simulation results show that proposed algorithm achievesconsiderable improvement in reduction of end-to-end delay and increase in packetdelivery rate.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are powerful distributed solutions which do not rely on external servers andgather required resources from their users. Therefore, fairness isan important feature for designers of these networks. Preventionof free-riding is a key aspect for fairness. One of the most importantfile-sharing protocols in P2P is BitTorrent. This protocolis distinguished from other P2P systems for its unique way ofuploading process and its novel approach to fairness. For the firsttime by implementing eminent game theory strategy, “tit-for-tat”for its protocol, BitTorrent made a breakthrough on fairness forP2P networks. However, it did not take long for researchers tofind security holes in its approach. It was proven several timesthat by making specific clients which do not follow BitTorrentalgorithms, it is possible to achieve free-riding. In this paper, bymaking fairness a universal problem we make free-riding a muchharder process. This is achieved by changing the role of Trackerfrom an indexing server to a more intelligent entity which makesthe proper decisions based on different situations.
The meaning of classification is assigning data intosubsets and clusters which are separated and independent. Thedata of any subsets have the most similarity to each otherand the most difference from the other subsets. In this paper,the classification of the liver disorders data is done with usingadaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference system. In this study, the liverdisorders data includes medical and physical information of 345patients is used to show the Multi-Layer ANFIS performance indata classification and clustering. The dataset is selected fromthe UCI datasets which is a rich source of heart disease, primarytumor, hepatitis and liver disorders datasets.
In this paper we propose a novel relay selectionmethod for cooperation communication networks using fuzzylogic. Many efforts have been made in the literature to selectthe superior relay based on relay’s SNR/SER and / orrelay’s reputation (in cooperation stimulation methods). Wejointly consider four criteria for the process of relay selection,relay’s SNR/SER, relay’s reputation, relaying strategy and relaylocation. We consider the condition in which network usersemploy different relaying strategies, i.e., some relay nodes employdecode-and-forward strategy, some nodes employ amplify-andforwardstrategy, and the other ones employ compress-andforwardstrategy. Also, we categorize the network users into LMclusters and take into account the relative distance of potentialrelay nodes from the source and destination nodes in the processof relay selection. This relative distance has significant impact onthe average achievable rate in destination node. Finally, by usinga fuzzy logic decision making method, we select the ”best relay”based on these four criteria.
In this paper, a priority-based congestion controlmechanism for wireless sensor networks using fuzzy logic isproposed. The proposed method tries to make a distinctionbetween locally generated data and transit data in such apriority-based mechanism by providing a novel queueing model.Moreover, two parameters is used as the inputs of fuzzy ratecontroller: congestion score and buffer occupancy which arebased on total packet input rate, packet forwarding rate atMAC layer, number of packets in the queue buffer, and totalbuffer size at node. As soon as the congestion is detected by theproposed congestion score relation, the notification signal is sentto offspring nodes and they regulate their data transmission rateto parent (sink) node. Simulation results clearly show that theimplementation of the proposed method using fuzzy logic, hasdone significant reduction in terms of the number of packet lossrate and end-to-end delay.
The energy of all sensor nodes in wireless sensornetworks is limited. For this reason, providing a method ofcommunication between nodes and network administrator tomanage energy consumption is crucial. In this paper, a centralizedevolutionary clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks isproposed. The proposed protocol selects the appropriate nodesas CHs according to three criteria that ultimately increases thenetwork life time. This paper investigates the genetic algorithm(GA) as a dynamic technique to find optimum CHs. Furthermore,an innovative fitness function is proposed. Each chromosomewhich minimizes fitness function is selected by base station (BS)and its nodes are introduced to the whole network as proper CHs.Simulation results show that the implementation of the proposedmethod using GA, has done significant improvement in terms ofthe number of nodes alive and the network lifetime.
This paper investigates the usage of ConventionalPID controller, Type-l and Type-2 fuzzy controller in controllingthe liquid level in the three tank level control system. All realsystems exhibit non-linear nature, thus conventional controllersare not always able to provide good and accurate results.Fuzzy logic control (FLC) can be used to obtain more preciseresults. In this paper a model for simulation is designed andall the assumptions are made before the development of themodel. Analysis is done through computer simulation usingMatlab/Simulink toolbox. Moreover, the behavior of the systemin terms of time response (e.g., settling time, a certain rise-time,overshoot, integral of absolute error (IAE) and integral time ofabsolute error (ITAE) is studied and the results for the caseof utilizing FLCs is compared with the case of employing PIDcontroller.